I accidently came over recent research on the topic Transgenderism (or transsexualism) on a Norwegian site. I did translate the article in google translate. In addition there is a fact box to the article. Let's try post the article. I hope it makes sense for English speakers. Note especially the paragrah "What's the reason for the diagnosis Transsexualism?"
For those who's interested is no problem click the link and copy paste the fact box and translate in google. The fact box is the the one with grey background.
The diagnosis of transsexualism
The diagnosis of Transsexualism is one of many different issues within gender identity-themes (KIT), and is the most famous diagnosis.
Rikshospitalet in Oslo land function for the diagnosis of Transsexualism. This means that only doctors and psychologists at the hospital who can diagnose and provide hormone therapy and surgery. People who receive this diagnosis at the hospital, is often described as "born in the wrong body" and they change sex. The diagnosis of Transsexualism is a matter of gender identity and not a question of sexuality. This is in contrast to lesbians, gays and bisexuals, as defined by their sexual identity.
The issues within gender identity themes can be very complicated, and it requires extensive knowledge of making the correct diagnosis. If they believe that someone has problems with their gender identity, it might be good to take it up with a psychologist with sexological knowledge and have experience with gender identity-themes. Harry Benjamin resource (HBRS) may refer to doctors and psychologists who have such knowledge.
It is a fact that in Norway are all in the group of patients in a period. They get help from public healthcare for the diagnosis of Transsexualism. The people who receive help at the hospital, has from childhood and puberty an existential need to get help so they can live as the gender they are psychologically, boy or girl.
It is not about to challenge gender model. Most people in our society experience being man or woman right. So it is for patients at the hospital. They are men and women - not transsexuals, shemales or transsexuals. All also get a new Social Security number that equates them legally as man or woman with all the other men and women in Norway. Although it is about gender identity, then all belonging to the group, also a sexual orientation. They are like the general population heterosexuals, gays, lesbians and bisexuals.
Patients who are diagnosed are becoming younger and ever more young people to study. The average age is currently 20 years and 15 to 20 patients under 16 years of investigation and treatment each year. There are signs both on the treatment of young people have improved, and that the opportunity to get help and treatment has become known among a growing number of people and clinicians.
Although the medical services have improved since the first operation was carried out at the hospital in 1963, and the knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment is more available to most people, it remains a very long way to go in terms of social acceptance. Daily experiencing some men and women who are in treatment or finished operated, being socially ignored, met with prejudices, ridiculed and described as anything but a sex. It is a very serious problem that politicians and society in general must take seriously and do something.
What is the reason for the diagnosis of Transsexualism?
Recent research shows that gender identity in the brain is determined in the embryonic stage, and that hormone levels is one of the factors that determine. Large amounts testosterone developing brain in a male direction, while larger amounts of estrogen developing brain in a female direction.
The research shows that the genitals are being developed in the first months of pregnancy, while gender identity is developed in the brain in the last half of pregnancy and after birth. This means that certain factors may affect how genitalia and gender identity develops - and that they can evolve in different directions because they are not developed simultaneously and thus are independent of each other. If this is correct, we can expect to see female structures in a man's brain and male structures in a woman's brain. That is exactly what is the case in the brains of men and women who have been diagnosed F.64.0, trans sexualism.
Treatment in Norway
The treatment of people who are diagnosed with transsexualism in Norway, consisting of psychological assessment, hormone treatment and gender corrective surgery. In total about 500 people diagnosed operated at the hospital since 1963. In Norway, one must be between twelve and fifteen years to possibly could begin at puberty delaying treatment and 16 years to start on hormones. For surgery is the age limit of 18 years.
In Norway there is no law that gives the right to gender corrective treatment. The treatment is given on medical grounds. The people in this group need to consult their general practitioner, who in turn will refer you to a psychologist or psychiatrist in secondary care. Psychiatrist or psychologist should refer the client on to the section for transsexualism at Rikshospitalet.
If the multidisciplinary team at the hospital confirmed the diagnosis in the absence of contraindications (meaning that there are risks associated with the treatment method), the patient is referred to the hormone specialist at the National Hospital for internal medical examination. Then the patient can take with hormone therapy. It is expected that the patient during hormone treatment is undergoing a "reality experience", meaning that the patient must live openly with their psychological gender, that is what he or she wants to help.
After about two years of hormone treatment, the patient may undergo surgery. For men (born girl's body) involves mastectomy (removal of the breast) and removal of the uterus and ovaries (ovaries). Later constructed a penis. There are several techniques, but none work hundred percent satisfactory.
For women (born boy body) constructed a vagina where the penis skin is used as interior lining. It created the clitoris of the glans penis with nerves intact, and it means that the person can have a normal sex life after surgery. Those who wish, can get implants in her breasts. In Norway takes the gender corrective process minimum of three to five years from the patient comes to the hospital.